Clinically used broad-spectrum antibiotics compromise inflammatory monocyte-dependent antibacterial defense in the lung
DÖRNER P. 1, ANANDAKUMAR H. 1, RÖWEKAMP I. 1, FIOCCA VERNENGO F. 1, MILLET PASCUAL-LEONE B. 1, KRZANOWSKI M. 1, IGBOKWE V. 1, LÖBER U. 1, HEINZ G. 2, MASHREGHI M. 2, SCHULTE L. 5, KLATT A. 2, OFFERMANNS S. 3, MACK M. 4, FORSLUND S. 1, WILCK N. 1, BARTOLOMAEUS H. 1, HEIMESAAT M. 1, OPITZ B. 1
1 Charité Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; 2 German Rheumatism Research Center, a Leibniz Institute, Berlin, Germany; 3 Max-Planck-Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Bad Nauheim, Germany; 4 University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; 5 Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, Germany
Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is associated with high mortality and costs, and frequently caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Although prior antimicrobial therapy is a major risk factor for HAP, the underlying mechanism remains incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that antibiotic therapy in hospitalized patients is associated with decreased diversity of the gut microbiome and depletion of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) producers. Mice transplanted with patient gut microbiota reveal that these antibiotic-induced microbiota perturbations compromise pulmonary defense against MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae by impairing free fatty acid receptor (FFAR)2/3-controlled antibacterial activity of inflammatory monocytes (IMs). Collectively, we characterize how clinically relevant antibiotics affect antimicrobial defense in the context of human microbiota, and reveal a critical impairment of IMs. Our study provides additional arguments for the rational use of antibiotics and offers mechanistic insights for the development of novel prophylactic strategies to protect high-risk patients from HAP.